Development Pathways presents evidence-based comparative analysis of economic and social developments in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh since they gained independence in 1947. Pakistan was further subdivided in 1971 when Bangladesh became independent. In 1947 these countries were mired in poverty, illiteracy, poor health status, underemployment, and rudimentary infrastructure. There was tremendous pessimism about the future economic sustenance of these countries.
The development pathways adopted by each of these countries differed significantly but they each also went through paradigm shifts in their policies in the period 1990 onwards. All three countries started their journey with centrally planned state control of command heights of economy with Pakistan switching back and forth from liberalization, nationalization and once again liberalization. Institutional decay and frequent political changes brought about a major shift from a fast growing economy in the first forty years to becoming a laggard in the recent thirty year period. India adhered to its initial model until 1991 when it abolished License Raj, opened up the economy to the private sector, and attracted Foreign Direct Investment. India has been recording growth rates of 6-7 percent since then.
Bangladesh also started its development journey by following a state-controlled model. However, political stability post 1990, continuity of economic policies across political regimes and liberalization widened the scope of the private sector and moved the growth trajectory significantly upwards.
This study identifies critical success factors, and the risks and pain points for steering the future direction of these economies. This book would be of interest to policy practitioners, opinion makers, academics and researchers, and the students of Development Studies as it takes a multidisciplinary approach rather than a narrow lens of economic analysis.
AUTHOR: ISHRAT HUSAIN, SARAH NIZAMANI, SHAGUFTA SHABBAR, MASOOD AHMED SIDDIQUI ISBN: 9786277626198 Publisher: LIBERTY BOOKS Subtitle: INDIA | PAKISTAN | BANGLADESH 1947 – 2022 Author: ISHRAT HUSAIN
The Sunday Times Top 10 bestseller on India’s experience of British colonialism, by the internationally-acclaimed author and diplomat Shashi Tharoor Tharoor s impassioned polemic slices straight to the heart of the darkness that drives all empires … laying bare the grim, and high, cost of the British Empire for its former subjects. An essential read Financial Times In the eighteenth century, India s share of the world economy was as large as Europe s. By 1947, after two centuries of British rule, it had decreased six-fold. The Empire blew rebels from cannon, massacred unarmed protesters, entrenched institutionalised racism, and caused millions to die from starvation. British imperialism justified itself as enlightened despotism for the benefit of the governed, but Shashi Tharoor takes demolishes this position, demonstrating how every supposed imperial gift – from the railways to the rule of law – was designed in Britain s interests alone. He goes on to show how Britain’s Industrial Revolution was founded on India s deindustrialisation, and the destruction of its textile industry. In this bold and incisive reassessment of colonialism, Tharoor exposes to devastating effect the inglorious reality of Britain s stained Indian legacy.
Author: SHASHI THAROOR
ISBN: 9781802061765 ISBN: 9781802061765 Publisher: PENGUIN BOOKS Subtitle: WHAT THE BRITISH DID TO INDIA Author: SHASHI THAROOR
The famous British philosopher and historian, R.G. Collingwood, suggested that a historian must ‘reconstruct’ history by using ‘historical imagination’ to ‘re-enact’ the thought processes of historical persons based on information and evidence from historical sources. That is what the authors of the present book have tried to do. The events of 1971 that resulted in the breakup of Pakistan are a milestone in Pakistan’s history. To retrieve what happened and why it happened is an exercise that so far has been avoided or left at best incomplete. The book based on published and unpublished memories of activists of 1971 attempts to give a critical assessment of the events and spell out lessons that have to be learnt.
AUTHOR: IKRAM SEHGAL BETTINA ROBOTKA
ISBN: 9780190702274 ISBN: 9780190702274 Publisher: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Subtitle: EAST PAKISTAN 1971: History Revisited Author: IKRAM SEHGAL BETTINA ROBOTKA
This book explores institutional development in British India which encompassed both the modernization of existing practices and arrangements (such as the bureaucracy and the military) and the importation of alien practices (such as the rule of law, representation, and mass politics). During the nearly two centuries of British political and military domination of South Asia, the institutional basis for India’s and Pakistan’s colonial democracies was laid. For varied reasons, South Asian elites have been reluctant to engage with the history of British India as a state that was very much the successor of the Timurid (Mughal) Empire and the precursor to the republics of contemporary South Asia. This study argues in favour of re-engagement with the processes of institutional development in South Asia and the manner in which the arbitrarily run estates of the pre-British Indian periods were gradually converted into the form, and to a limited extent, imbued with the substance, of a modern constitutional state as a direct result of British rule. Given that the crisis of governance in South Asia arises in part from the inability of Indian and Pakistani elites to operate the institutional frameworks bequeathed to them and reform them further, it is hoped that this study will provide historical context to discussions about crises of governance in South Asia.
Author: ILHAN NIAZ
ISBN: 9789697342204 ISBN: 9789697342204 Publisher: OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Subtitle: IMPERIAL GOVERNANCE IN SOUTH ASIA 1700-1947 Author: ILHAN NIAZ
In August 1765 the East India Company defeated the young Mughal emperor and forced him to establish a new administration in his richest provinces. Run by English merchants who collected taxes using a ruthless private army, this new regime saw the East India Company transform itself from an international trading corporation into something much more unusual: an aggressive colonial power in the guise of a multinational business.
William Dalrymple tells the remarkable story of the East India Company as it has never been told before, unfolding a timely cautionary tale of the first global corporate power.
Author: William Dalrymple
ISBN: 9781408864395 ISBN: 9781408864395 Publisher: BLOOMSBURY Subtitle: THE RELENTLESS RISE OF THE EAST INDIA COMPANY Author: WILLIAM DALRYMPLE