In this major reinterpretation of religion and society in India, Harjot Oberoi challenges earlier accounts of Sikhism, Hinduism and Islam as historically given categories encompassing well-demarcated units of religious identity. Through a searching examination of Sikh historical materials, he shows that early Sikh tradition was not concerned with establishing distinct religious boundaries. Most Sikhs recognized multiple identities grounded in local, regional, religious, and secular loyalties. Consequently, religious identities were highly blurred and several competing definitions of what constituted a Sikh were possible.
In the closing decades of the nineteenth century, however, the Singh Sabha, a powerful new Sikh movement, began to view the multiplicity in Sikh identity with suspicion and hostility. Aided by social and cultural forces unleashed by the British Raj, the Singh Sabha sought to recast Sikh tradition and purge it of diversity. The ethnocentric logic of a new elite dissolved alternative ideals under the highly codified culture of modern Sikhism.
A study of the process by which a pluralistic religious world view is replaced by a monolithic one, this important book calls into question basic assumptions about the efficacy of fundamentalist claims and the construction of all social and religious identities. An essential book for the field of South Asian religions, this work is also an important contribution to cultural anthropology, postcolonial studies, and the history of religion in general. ISBN: 0226615928 Publisher: UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO PRESS Subtitle: CULTURE, IDENTITY, AND DIVERSITY IN THE SIKH TRADITION Author: HARJOT OBEROI
This book is the most important primary source on the emergence of the Fatimid state in the early years of the tenth century. Its author, al-Qadi al-Nu’man, was an official historian of the Fatimids and an eminent exponent of Ismaili jurisprudence, as well as being perhaps the most prolific and versatile of all the Fatimid thinkers.
The Iftitah is al-Nu’man’s major historical work, and records in detail the background to the establishment of the Fatimid state, first in the Yemen and then in North Africa. It is based on official archival and biographical documents that were accessible to the author at the time, and which have not survived. It is thus a highly significant source on the religious, social and political conditions which prevailed when the Fatimids began to consolidate their rule. In charting the circumstances in which the Fatimid state came into being, this book will be of major interest and value to students of early medieval history and Islamic studies. ISBN: 1850438854 Publisher: I.B.TAURIS Subtitle: THE RISE OF AN EARLY ISLAMIC EMPIRE Author: HAMID
These studies focus on questions of religious interaction and change in India from the 6th century B.C. to the present day. They represent the work of scholars in a range of disciplines. ISBN: 0700704213 Publisher: CURZON Subtitle: INTERACTION AND CHANGE Author: GEOFFERY A ODDI
In four brief chapters, writes Clifford Geertz in his preface, “I have attempted both to lay out a general framework for the comparative analysis of religion and to apply it to a study of the development of a supposedly single creed, Islam, in two quite contrasting civilizations, the Indonesian and the Moroccan.”
Mr. Geertz begins his argument by outlining the problem conceptually and providing an overview of the two countries. He then traces the evolution of their classical religious styles which, with disparate settings and unique histories, produced strikingly different spiritual climates. So in Morocco, the Islamic conception of life came to mean activism, moralism, and intense individuality, while in Indonesia the same concept emphasized aestheticism, inwardness, and the radical dissolution of personality. In order to assess the significance of these interesting developments, Mr. Geertz sets forth a series of theoretical observations concerning the social role of religion.
ISBN: 0226285111 – Paperback Publisher: CHICAGO ISBN: 0226285111 Publisher: CHICAGO Subtitle: RELIGIOUS DEVELOPMENT IN MOROCCO AND INDONESIA Author: CLIFFORD GEERTZ